ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is made in the performance of work under contract for NASA, Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, Public Law 85-568 (. Check out also instant legit loans .. 435 statistics 42 USC 2457 72) were subject to the provisions of section 305 described herein. Check out also instant loans through your phone .
Background of the invention
This invention relates to a reflectance spectrometer, in particular, to methods and apparatus for instant display and analysis of reflectance spectra for the identification of minerals in the field.
Reflection spectrum has been used for the identification of many minerals ranging from rock to zeolite Ming Ban properly. Check out also installmetn loans . For example, a portable reflectance spectrometer, in the U.S. Patent, Dr. Alexander FH Goetz, the present invention has been disclosed by the user and others. No. 4043668. Briefly, the spectrometer is an optical wavelength range of the filter wheel unit (0. Check out also instant loans uk .4 to 2.5 micrometers) disclosed that it contains a digital recording device that records the intensity of radiation at different wavelengths is reflected in the chosen. Check out also instant cash no verification . The recorded spectra are analyzed to determine the composition of a substance that produces a reflection spectrum later.
The development of portable reflectance spectrometer, S multispectral photography experiment are included in the Apollo 12 mission - has been developed from 1967 to 158 in 1970. The experiment using a multi-spectral imaging system analytical capability for determining the boundaries of the lunar surface remotely from orbit lithography, however, no analysis of the spectral data in real time. For a description of the experiment, please see Alexander FH Goetz et al. "Apollo 12 Multispectral Photography Experiment," Journal Geochimica actor, Vol. Year since 2310 3,2301, MIT Press, 1971.
Following its development, a new research program was established in 1970 and 1973 in order to improve the accuracy of the spectroradiometric telescopic imaging system. Check out also instant money lenders . The role of computer imaging in orbital multispectral photography was established as a means of strengthening. Properly reinforced preliminary geological survey first Earth satellite (ERTS) multispectral data, evaluate, and was conducted in the field of interpretation on the Colorado Plateau. The study also uses a reference to the arid desert regions, was conducted to determine the radiation quality of the information and use of ERTS. These, please see the Alexander FH Goetz. , "The symposium..." Mar. National Aeronautics and Space Year 5-9,1973 (NASA) SP 411 from page 403 - 327, in 1167 and 1159. In addition, dry land, and 147 136 Proceedings of the 4th Annual Meeting on Remote Sensing of the University. Of Arizona, Tucson, May 11. In 1973.
Global efforts are based on the application of digital recording of the emission spectrum of the reflected field to the official, California Institute of Technology, was developed for a range of 0. Check out also installment loans online .4 to 2.5 micrometers spectral reflectance novel portable, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) after being held. This equipment is subject to the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 4043668 assigned to the California Institute of Technology. Electronic recording device in a unique time delay before actual mineral identification, another "pack" was a system. Unit, and features of the present invention, there is no ability for instant display of analysis for the 200 spectra per day on a digital compact cassette tape can be recorded for later analysis. no sum. Data thus obtained, using a programmed digital computer or a larger trailer, the other was handled during installation. The drawback of the system, identification of minerals is to create the problem of correlating the results of data analysis in this particular location, such as terrain, could not make was that on the site. See Also instant tax refund loan .
Increased activity from 1975-1978 in the field of multispectral image analysis of JPL and is more fully described in U.S. patent, an interface to facilitate analysis and retrieval system with faster computers, CCD imaging device and system development led to. Alexander FH Goetz, et al 4134683 first. Charge-coupled device (CCD) array of several imaging systems, including air or a linear detector array, using multiple filters each corresponding to a given bandwidth, spectral reflectance at different wavelengths simultaneously target area was used to obtain rate data. Data from the array to analyze the image data in real time to provide an overlay of mineral identification data on the geographic data, and allows you to display information superimposed images of terrain data that was loaded into a computer or microprocessor. See Also instant cash advance pittsburgh pa . However, generally speaking, covers the visible and near infrared bands are very broad, qualitative analysis was possible only a rough mineral or oil spill zone. The system has had a portable, can be programmed to identify the presence of certain substances one at a time. Check out also instant loan pittsburgh .
U.S. patent instruments. 4134683 first, using a frequency divider circuit, "the ratioing the band" is included. "Band ratioing is" to characterize the material, rather than a positive identification of the material spectral measurements and calculations of the ratio of the two most prominent peak is a technique that attempts to provide a single peak. To offset the effects of terrain, band ratioing to create a ratio of the channel filter two, thus, ratioing the band etc. Check out also instant installment loan guaranteed . is also high between the channels due to the effects of systematic topography This is useful when dealing with the problem of correlation of the data.
Later development is described in U.S. Pat. 4345840 First, to reflect the radiation in a given band, involved in a ratioing radiometer able to identify the selected material. The instrument, in particular, the most commonly suited to distinguish the clay minerals found in Earth's topography. Instrument is a dual beam ratioing radiometer with a self-contained two trains of light directed to the same target. See Also instalmene loans direct to account . It has a digital display Continuous ratio values from the train two light each containing a separate filter for the selection of narrow spectral bands that ratio for the identification of the presence of minerals identified based on spectral properties of a known mineral to provide. .
In the embodiments illustrated, has selected the band visible and infrared range of 2.5 micrometers from the 0.4 band narrow ratio, and means, in order to have the axes themselves both at least relative to each other towards the target is provided for pivoting the optical axis of a single train. See Also instant credit payday installment loan . Each channel optical train two relays (relay) selectable filters between the lens and the lens, the detector has a front and rear.
As a particular feature of the instrument, filter wheel coaxial two one between the filter for passing light to the selected filter wheel for another separate filter wheel among other filter for passing light already By providing a slit in the filter wheel, channel and directed through the selected filter on the detector and a relay lens provides a slit. That way, the filter wheel one while passing through the light filtered through the detector filter and relay the second slit filter wheel the other independent in order to place the filter selected in the optical path between the relay lens the other can be rotated to a particular material. In addition, both filter wheels, filter certain mineral pairs are selected in the filter wheel, when it was destroyed as well, may have together. Operation to confirm the presence of minerals at various target areas is to direct a different filter for the filter in the filter wheels for each position for 5 seconds, for example, step a filter wheel both at all positions Other wheels are simplified by doing.
Detector output of the two (the output of the detector of the other channels, a division of the detector output of one channel) ratioing continuous, and digital readout continuous rate for recording and / or display and fields, using the data tables for specific minerals to enable continuous and instantaneous identification of the material. For example, kaolinite and montmorillonite are very different ratios of values obtained for the filter centered at 2.10 and 2.17 micrometers, and hence the presence of substances which can be quickly determined in the field. However, much to the formation of clay minerals, many of the individual components of silicates, carbonates, and mixed oxides, are present. To perform the analysis apparatus band ratioing is it dozens of filters available in the field, to have a band broad ratioing the data in visible band and infrared selected for the mineral known as is required. Therefore, all of the above analysis for the identification of some or mineral exploration sector and that is desired and analysis system incorporating a larger memory capacity. In addition, the system has been desired for a more rapid identification of geological and mineral complex mixture of components.
Summary of the invention
In order to provide a display of selected portions of the spectra directly reflect the formation of minerals (other sources of radiation by the sun or a selected band) was targeted, in-field calibration, and can be portable spectrometer analysis has been configured for the data processing means, memory means for displaying the visible reflectance spectra for matching and known mineral reflectance spectra stored in advance. The same spectrometer without the display means can be used to identify minerals using a spectral matching algorithm to determine the best match of the spectral reflectance of the reflection spectrum to any advance in the memory. Both modes (visual or algorithm) to operate in, this spectrometer, a wavelength-tunable grating or prism through a spectral filter is selected to produce a spectrum of wavelengths over a section of which is directed by the appropriate means and then In order to provide continuous measurement of the spectrum over the selected section is achieved by guiding the reflected light optics, the detector array to measure reflectance at narrow intervals continuously. See Also instant loans on-line . The output of each detector is associated with a different wavelength interval selected sections are converted to digital form and stored in memory under the control of a microprocessor. The microprocessor may be obtained by processing the spectrum and to display that match the visual mode of the computer-matching mode. In either case, the microprocessor, memory is stored in advance to obtain spectra of minerals are known to systematically match. In visual mode, each spectrum is stored in advance, will be displayed in the input spectrum for visual comparison. Check out also installment personal loan . The algorithm mode, each spectrum is stored in advance, by the spectral matching algorithm are compared to show the identity of the mineral to produce a spectrum that best matches the input spectrum. In either case, it is possible to select for display only part of the spectrum. The selected part, to perform meaningful comparisons of the peak, if desired, may be deployed on a scale of reflectance and wavelength coordinates.
The novel features which are considered characteristic of the invention has been described with particularity in the appended claims. When read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the present invention will be best understood from the following description.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. Figure 2 shows an adjustable band spectrometer.
Fig. Figure 3a, c and b are reflected in the field using the equipment shown, the radiation of minerals that are selected are stored for comparison with the spectrum that appears to determine the minerals in the target area is a graph illustrating the reflectance spectrum. 1.
Embodiment of the invention]
To the figures. 1, portable spectrometer for analysis, are shown, including the optical head 10 is connected with the microprocessor 11 to memory 12 via the bus 13 by the signal conversion system 14 A / D. In addition, when connected to the microprocessor memory, control panel 15, preferably, the display system 16, liquid crystal display (LCD) systems.
Head 10, a detector array 21, such as a linear array of 20 silicon diode detector spectrometer is included. For visible and near infrared region, a fixed spectrometer, the radiation from the terrain that can be employed in the detector array is about 2000, preferably band (wavelength) spectrometer inlet 20 can be adjusted evenly distributed across the full spectrum of the reflected optical system 22 is received by the imaging focus. However, if it is adjustable to cover a small section of spectrum in the 2.5 micron region spectrometer 1 (IR short wave), so a linear array of 50 detectors are properly controlled and band filter 23, and included 20 spectrometer between the imaging optical system 22. The chopper includes 24 may not be necessary for the visible light region as an option.
Enter the appropriate commands to the microprocessor to control the filter 23 20 spectrometer through a separate controller that is included with each in turn the control panel to set the spectrometer filters and adjustable band may be used. In addition, the spectrometer and manually adjust the filter settings selected will be entered into the microprocessor through the control panel.
Spectrometer implemented using the reflection grating or prism, as shown in Figure, and dispersed the light passing through the filter of the selected spectral band. Concave reflection grating 2 for 30. Light passing through the slit 31 is diffracted by the concave reflection grating to focus on the detector array 21 via a folding mirror 32. This use of concave reflection grating was first developed by Roland, the slit and grating, collimating lens is no longer required between the needs of the telescope between the gratings and the detector array focusing effects of concave diffraction grating and the reason . See Also instant loans over phone . The relative inclination of the mirror 32 30 lattice, the diffracted light is as follows, for 1 to 2.5 micron region, an array of 50 detectors, the detector so that the appropriate section that covers the spectrum of array 20 can be adjusted for. Of the above. Many other known arrangements, reflecting both the grating and the prism, the spectrometer can be.
The signal from each detector is converted from analog to digital form by a separate signal converter A / D conversion system 14. Intensity of light received by each, so that a separate converter is proportional to the intensity of light reflected by the terrain is well suited for each detector. The operator begins processing the microprocessor A / D conversion for each detector in order to begin the process of push-button commands. Using a successive approximation method, the process is the same number of clock pulses that are used throughout the digital portion of the system, to be completed for each detector. The microprocessor starts the process of reading the digital value of the intensity of each detector. See Also instant debit card loan . These values that make up the spectrum is stored in memory by the microprocessor 12 for display and analysis.
Identification of unknown substances in the field, looking for a prominent peak in the spectrum on the display 16, can be done by matching the observed spectra spectra stored in memory 12 or hard copy reference portfolio of visual and You can. Fig. Figure 3a, c and b, kaolinite shows a typical spectrum is stored in the hard copy reference library for montmorillonite, alunite region and from 2.0 to 2.5 micrometers. Spectrum of the reflected radiation is displayed, the operator may be compared with the spectra of these have been saved. Agreement with one of these spectra are saved, thus, indicates the target area mineral reflectance spectra generated using a filter that contains the spectral region. Calling from a prerecorded spectrum of user-selected memory alternately flashes on the display 16 by comparison, you can visually determine the best match. When the accumulation of a considerable library reference spectra, the spectral matching algorithm was programmed into the microprocessor 18 can rapidly identify the material. See Also instant money till payday .
Allowance because of the wide variation in terms of spectral response, can be done for sequential identification of individual components and the mixed material. See Also installment loans online no teletrack . Other material system known spectral response of plants and minerals to immediately detect the presence of all types. The initial calibration is preferably in the target illuminated by the sun, are carried out in ambient light. If you have an adjustable diffraction grating, the grating is adjusted to the desired initial wavelength band has a band corresponding to the selected filter. Broadband filters are installed to suitable fixed grating monochromator. Instrument gain, like the ceramic white wool which is sold under the trademark FIBERFAX reflects all wavelengths equally, it is pointed out in a standard calibration target reflectance. See Also instant cash loans no guarantor . Are programmed to adjust the gain of each detector to be equal to 100% level is selected automatically by the microprocessor.
The instruments are pointed at the target to screen 11 displays the spectrum. In addition, the value of the selected wavelength band displayed vertically. Check out also instant display . Previously recorded spectra has been summoned to appear as one of the curves superimposed for comparison of the measured spectrum and flashing mode or next. See Also instant loan company in california . Operator, the spectra were recorded in one of the following pre-search of the best mode the microprocessor will step. In addition, when viewed in each recorded spectrum is the identification of the material was obtained spectrum. In addition, the microprocessor, in order to obtain the best match of the spectrum was recorded in advance may be commanded by the operator via the control panel using the algorithm stored in it are selected in this way Identify the material that reflects light in other bands.
In such cases it is a spectrum measured throughout, as when using a spectrometer fixed such operators, the spectrum appears covered peaks important for showing the amplification and the first Select a band. Identification of the material that reflects light bands are identified. Components of this substance is identified separately.
Particular embodiment of the present invention, are described and illustrated herein, it is recognized that there are likely to be skilled in the art could easily modify and variations. Thus, it claims are intended to be interpreted to cover such modifications and equivalents.